Species: ‘Swallow’ (Hirunda sp.); ‘Sea-swallow’ (=tern, Sterna sp.)
Source: ‘Culhwch ac Olwen’, the earliest Welsh prose tale.
Date: c.1100 A.D., but from the oldest-seeing part of a story with a known ninth century version.
Highlights: Our story pauses mid-way through to admire the figure of Culhwch, boy-hero. He’s so fly, even the mud off his horse’s hooves come out like swallows, and his hounds are as agile as terns.
Posted in Birds, Welsh
Tagged arthurian, Culhwch, Culhwch ac Olwen, ecosensitive approach, figurative, heroic age, linguistic approach, literary approach, mabinogion, marxist approach, medieval welsh, nature is amazing, rosc, runs, Welsh, wetland
Species: The 35 most popular types of bird.
Source: ‘The Parliament of Fowls’ by Geoffrey Chaucer.
Highlights: Considering Chaucer had no idea what he was talking about, his categorisation of birds into four categories was perhaps the best we could hope for.
Public domain woodcut from another text (‘The Woody Choristers’).
Part of the Vaughan coat-of-arms at Tretower Court, Brecon Beacons, south-east Wales.
Species: Generic snakey-snake, called an adder (Vipera berus) but has prey constricting habit like smooth snake (Coronella austriaca).
Source: The Vaughan family coat-of-arms and its descriptions (not as boring as it sounds, I promise!)
Date: c.1450 A.D.
Highlights: The Vaughan coat-of-arms shows three boys being strangled by snakes. This was inspired by the legend of a family member being born with a snake around his neck. Boring folklorists c.1900 interpreted this as an #IHateSnakes moment. They are wrong, it was originally the opposite. The writings of Lewis Glyn Cothi suggest comparing someone to a snake was a compliment. Continue reading
Posted in Amphibians and Reptiles, English, Welsh
Tagged adder, art history, artwork, battlefield, breconshire, coat-of-arms, eco-sensitive reading, figurative, folkloric approach, garden, harmony with nature, heroes as animals, history text, home, llys tre-twr, moreithig warwyn, nature is a pest, persecution, smooth snake, tretower, vaughan, vaughan family
Least weasel (M. nivalis) photographed by Medien-gbr and licensed for use under CC-BY-SA-3.0.
In one of Chaucer’s ‘Canterbury Tales’, the main character Alisoun is described as a weasel. Most scholars have taken this as a parody of courtly love, a sign of Alisoun’s promiscuity or the character’s weakness. Could this actually be a complement?
Species: A ‘wesele’. The term was generic in the medieval period but most probably referred to Mustela nivalis, M. erminia or M. putorius.
Source: ‘The Miller’s Tale’, Chaucer’s most adult and therefore most well-known story.
Highlights: Alisoun, the main female character is compared to a weasel in her introduction. How could Chaucer say that about the poor innocent girl? Oh I remember. She’s a right weasel.
Posted in English, Mammals
Tagged 14th century, Alisoun, Canterbury Tales, Chaucer, comedy, figurative, heroes as animals, heroine, linguistic approach, literary approach, Miller's Tale, mustela nivalis, romance, satire, weasel
Looking at references to the chameleon in Shakespeare’s ‘Two Gentlemen of Verona’ can reveal some surprising things. Chameleons were once thought to live on nothing but air, and therefore make perfect metaphorical comparisons for those in unrequited love.
Species: Some kind of chameleon (Chamaeleonid sp.)
Source: ‘The Two Gentlemen of Verona’, perhaps Shakespeare’s first play.
Highlights: Considering how often Shakespeare uses the semantic field of feasting to describe love, comparing people to chameleons (who were thought to never eat) was an especially effective insult…
Click below to read more.
Posted in Amphibians and Reptiles, English, Monsters
Tagged chameleon, comedy, drama, figurative, folkloric approach, heroes as animals, imported stories, literary approach, lovers, modern, play, satire, Shakespeare, Shakespeare play, Two Gentlemen of Verona, woodland
The portrait of St. Mark in the Lichfield (St Chad) Gospel.
In 2013 I had an academic paper accepted by the Journal of Late Antique Religion and Culture (JLARC). The journal is open access and you can read it here (link to pdf in the right hand column). I found that the manuscript animals were copied from manuscript to manuscript by closeted scribes, and were not based on real animals (e.g. lynxes, cats, wolves).
Species: The manuscript images were all derivative and made up a coherent, although unrealistic tradition of depicting lions (Panthera leo) not lynxes (Lynx lynx), wolves (Canis lupus) or cats (Felis catus; Felis sylvestris).
Source: Some of the oldest manuscripts in Britain: The illuminated gospels.
Date: 650-1000 A.D.
Highlights: One lion, that from the Lichfield (St Chad) Gospel (above) provoked a great deal of interest. It only had the stub of a tail and the scribe’s style made its body looked speckled. However in every other respect the lion was drawn in a derivative way to the mainstream tradition, and the answer is probably that the scribe simply forgot to paint the rest of the lion’s tail.
Posted in British, Latin, Mammals, Special Feature
Tagged archaeological approach, art history, biblical, ecosensitive approach, extinction, figurative, heroes as animals, home, imported stories, material culture, monastic, nature is a texture, saint's life
Brown bear photographed by Makeen Osman, licensed under CC-BY-SA-3.0. Great spotted woodpecker photographed by Maarten Visser and licensed under CC-BY-SA-2.0. Compilation created by Lee Raye, and hereby released under CC-BY-SA 3.0.
Species Mentioned: Possibly one bee-wolf (?Ursus Arctos? Dendrocopus Major?)
Source: ‘Beowulf’ the most famous Old English story.
Date: Uh-oh, best not to ask. The version we have probably somewhere c.700-1050.
Highlights: Beowulf is the all-star hero of his story, so his name must mean something, right? It quite nicely breaks down to beo-wulf (=bee-wolf). But what could a bee-wolf be?
Posted in Birds, English, Mammals
Tagged bee-keeping, eco-sensitive reading, extinction, figurative, folkloric approach, heroes as animals, heroic age, heroic cycle, hierarchy of birds, honey, imported stories, linguistic approach, linguistic drift, native status, persecution