A journal article I wrote last year has just been published in Fafnir: Nordic Journal of Science Fiction and Fantasy Research! The article discusses the environmental aspects of a modern fantasy novel called the Redemption of Althalus by David Eddings.
You can read the full article here for free, or read an explanation if you keep reading:
Scotia Illustrata: pre-industrial Scotland, is a postdoctoral research project run by recent Cardiff University postgraduate Lee Raye, starting on July 1st 2016.
This will be the first ever project to fully translate and comment upon a pre-Linnean Natural History from Britain.
Robert Sibbald’s Scotia Illustrata (1684) provides a full record of Scotland’s natural resources in the years before the Industrial Revolution.
The first phase of the project has been generously funded by the Society of Antiquaries of London, and the Alice McCosh Trust.
Interested parties can find out more about the work, author and text by visiting the project website: www.robert-sibbald.co.uk.
Posted in Amphibians and Reptiles, Birds, Invertebrates, Latin, Mammals, Plants (incl. Trees), Special Feature
Tagged 17th century, extinction, historical approach, linguistic approach, native status, natural history, nature is amazing, rise of scientific method, robert sibbald, Scientific Revolution, Scotia Illustrata
Species: One black hauthorne (unearthly Crataegus monogyna / Crataegus laevigata) and one generic thorn (most likely the same species). These bushes are, strangely both used by knights to store their weapons.
Source: ‘Sir Gareth’ one of the tales from Le Morte Darthur by Thomas Malory.
Date: Le Morte Darthur was probably complete in manuscript form by 1460 CE, and was first published by Caxton in 1485.
Highlights: A significant portion of the plot of ‘Gareth’ is concerned with the main character’s battles with a group of Power Rangers. He defeats a Black Knight, a Green Knight, a Red Knight, a Blue Knight a second Red Knight and a Brown Knight.
Is Gareth seeking perfection through alchemy (Wheeler, 1994)? Is Gareth seeking to fight his way up through the ranks to becoming the golden knight (Tiller, 2007)? Where do the bushes come in? Is this the end of the Power Rangers?
Read on to find out.
The MS image is from BL Royal 14 E III, f.97v. One of the knights is Gareth. It is in the public domain because of its age. The photograph was taken by Mooshuu and is licensed under CC-BY-SA-2.0. If you know the identity of the cosplayers here please let me know.
Posted in English, Plants (incl. Trees)
Tagged 15th century, arthurian, battlefield, blackthorn, civilisation vs nature, ecocritical approach, ecosensitive approach, grassland, hawes, hawthorn, heroic age, human-environment conflict, king arthur, Le morte darthur, literary approach, marxist approach, mayflowers, meadow, nature is a texture, romance, sir gareth, woodland
Species: Imported garden laurel tree (?Laurus nobilis ; Prunus Laurocerasus?)
Source: ‘Balyn & Balan’ in Le Morte Darthur.
Date: Complete by 1469-70, first printed 1485 A.D.
Highlights: Sir Balyn is the least subtle knight that’s ever lived. Once Balyn brought a sad, jilted knight to visit his lover. She was otherwise engaged. Balyn snuck his friend in anyway. Balyn can’t be held responsible for EVERY murder right?
Well-maintained laurel tree (Laurus nobilis) in Westbury Court Gardens. CC-BY-SA 2.0. Photograph by Pauline Eccles.
Posted in English, Plants (incl. Trees)
Tagged 15th century, arthurian, Balyn & Balan, bay, bay leaves, chivalric, chivalry, ecosensitive approach, garden, introduction, knights, laurel, Le morte darthur, literary approach, marxist approach, native status, nature is a texture, romance, sir Balyn, syr Balyn
Species: Red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris); oak (Quercus robur); crow (Corvus corone) ; tawny owl (Strix aluco); wild cat (Felis sylvestris).
Source: ‘Coed Marchan’ by Robin Clidro.
Date: Around 1580 A.D.
Highlights: After Marchan Wood was cut down, a delegation of red squirrels went to Parliament in London to request no more deforestation. They begged this on behalf of the wild animals mentioned above, but also mentioned the poor domestic stock and humans that were suffering. Sadly they weren’t listened to.
This week’s blog post is on the RSPB web site. Click here to see it.
Image from British Library Additional Manuscript 18852, a red squirrel from c.1500 AD. Image in the public domain.
Posted in Birds, Mammals, Plants (incl. Trees), Special Feature, Welsh
Tagged Bible Welsh, deforestation, early modern, ecocritical approach, environmental management, exploitation, extinction, harmony with nature, human-environment conflict, literary approach, nature is a hero, RSPB, satire, sixteenth century, vote for bob, Welsh poetry, woodland
Strand of Scots Pine photographed by Gwen and James Anderson and licensed under CC-AT-SA. This photo is missing DEATH.
Species: ‘pin’, usually thought to be (Pinus sylvestris) but could be yew (Taxus Baccata) or generic term for conifers.
Source: The ‘Song of Roland’, a piece of Crusades propaganda.
Date: Most probably c.1098-1100 A.D.
Highlights: If you believe the ‘Song of Roland’, every soldier rushes to the nearest pine tree whenever they are either (i) meeting a rich person or (ii) about to die. Pretty cool, eh?
The only trouble is, pine trees are supposed to have been extinct in England and northern France when the text was written…
Posted in Anglo-Norman, Plants (incl. Trees)
Tagged charlemagne, churchyards, ecosensitive approach, epic, extinction, ganelon, garden, linguistic drift, literary approach, marsilla, native status, nature is a texture, pine, pine tree, postcolonial approach, propaganda, song of roland, woodland, yew trees
Photograph of crab apple tree (Malus sylvestris) by Katy Wrathall licensed under CC-BY-SA-ND.
Species Mentioned: A series of crab apple trees (Malus sylvestris).
Source: ‘Yr Afallenau’, a series of Old Welsh prophetic verses found in the Black Book of Carmarthen and Peniarth 3.
Date: Pre-1138. Suggested earliest form c.800-899 A.D., but little evidence for this.
Highlights: Myrddin the Mad is the literary inspiration for THE Merlin you’ve heard about. He goes to live in the woods and gives prophecies to a series of apple trees. He believes some of these are magic and they hide him from “his enemies” (possibly just friends trying to get him to come down from that tree and put some clothes on.)
Posted in British, Plants (incl. Trees), Welsh
Tagged apple tree, apple trees, arthurian, cynfeirdd, ecosensitive approach, folkloric approach, harmony with nature, heroic age, literary approach, Myrddin Wyllt, nature is a hero, nature is a texture, nature is amazing, prophecy, woodland